By M. Hassan Kakar
This political and diplomatic historical past of overdue nineteenth-century Afghanistan and its significant ethnic teams lays naked how the floor was once laid for the emergence of Afghanistan as a geographical region in addition to for the implementation of schemes of modernization.
It describes how Amir Sher ‘Ali Khan and, extra totally, Amir ‘Abd al-Rahman Khan for the 1st time consolidated the authority of the imperative govt on the price of the conventional self reliant neighborhood magnates, and hence controlled to prepare a centralized monarchical country and expand its direct rule thoughout Afghanistan.
They did so within the days of what has develop into often called the nice video game for the mastery of crucial Asian states. even if the good online game ended in the aid of Afghanistan in measurement, it additionally resulted in the transparent demarcation of its obstacles in line with foreign agreements.
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Extra resources for A Political And Diplomatic History of Afghanistan, 1863-1901 (Brill's Inner Asian Library)
17 The British also detained some senior oﬃcials except for General Dawud Shah, the Commander-in-Chief, who tried to save the lives of the British. On October 12th, Roberts held a public darbar in Kabul. There, in the presence of some pro-British Mohammadzay sardars, he proclaimed that, as the chief civil and military administrator, he had appointed Major General Sir James Hill-Jones as the military governor of Kabul, and a few sardars as governors of provinces. Among them were Sardar Wali Mohammad Khan and Sardar Mohammad Hassan Khan, who were proclaimed as the governors of Turkestan and Maidan respectively.
Ishaq Khan was a full-cousin of Sardar 'Abd al-Rahman Khan, and like the latter, had been in exile in Samarqand. Afterward, Sardar 'Abd al-Rahman Khan doubled his eﬀorts in extending his inﬂuence throughout the country. In Kabul, opposition to the occupation lasted longer than the British had anticipated. 51 Further, the executions in Kabul had aroused fury, even in England, as previously noted. Under pressure, Lord Lytton decided to evacuate ‘Northern Afghanistan’ by the following autumn, and this made it necessary for him to make new arrangements.
However, reports on certain districts indicate that the revenue on land was assessed either on the basis of se-kot [one-third] or jam’ bast [assessment on a tribal community]. Under the former system, the government took one-third of the produce, and this was usually farmed out, while under the latter a ﬁxed lighter amount was assessed. 29 For revenue purposes, districts were classiﬁed on ethnic lines. Various other types of taxes were also imposed, as was the custom duty of two-and-a half percent on the original price of merchandises.
A Political And Diplomatic History of Afghanistan, 1863-1901 (Brill's Inner Asian Library) by M. Hassan Kakar